Lentinula edodes ATCC 48564


Credit: Geneviève Quenneville

Genome Project

— Genozymes

EST Project

cDNA annotation – Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, Concordia University

Species Information (MycoBank)

Current name

Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler 1976 [1]

Basionym

Agaricus edodes Berkeley 1878 [2]

Obligate synonyms

Armillaria edodes (Berk.) Saccardo 1887
Mastoleucomyces edodes (Berk.) Kuntze 1891 [3]
Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer 1941 [4]
Cortinellus edodes (Berk.) S. Ito & S. Imai

Taxonomic synonyms
Cortinellus berkeleyanus S. Ito & S. Imai 1925
Lentinus mellianus Lohwag 1918
Collybia shiitake J. Schröt. 1886
Lepiota shiitake (J. Schröt.) Tanaka 1889
Cortinellus shiitake (J. Schröt.) Henn. 1899
Tricholoma shiitake (J. Schröt.) Lloyd 1918
Lentinus shiitake (J. Schroeter) Singer 1936
Lentinus tonkinensis Pat. 1890

Morphic status

Teleomorph (anamorph unknown)

Lineage (abbreviated from MycoBank)

Fungi; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycetes; Agaricales; Marasmiaceae; Lentinula

Ecology

Lentinula edodes (common name: shiitake mushroom) is a wood-decaying species with a natural distribution extending over continental and north-east Asia [5,6], but which is cultivated nowadays on a global scale for food production [7,8]. It grows on the logs of hardwood trees such as oak, beech, chestnut, eucalyptus, and alder [9,10].

Interesting Features

Decomposer of lignocellulose

Lentinula edodes is a white rot fungus capable of causing simultaneous as well as selective delignification [11]. Secreted enzymes involved in biodegradation include: laccase [12], manganese peroxidase [13,14], xylanase, mannanase, mannopyranosidase, galactopyranosidase, endo-, and exo-glucanase, β-glucosidase [15,16]. Some of these enzymes have been reported to be secreted as a large multi-enzyme complex [17]. Suggested bioremediation applications include the treatment of olive mill wastewaters [18,19].

Biomedical Properties and other uses

Shiitake is the second most important cultivated mushroom for food production after the common button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) [8,20]. It is used for medicinal purposes with acclaimed antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic, and antiviral properties mostly attributed to the compounds lentinan, eritadenin, and lectins [21,22].

Health Hazards

The consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms and occupational handling of shiitake by farm workers can cause toxic and allergic reactions, also known as shiitake dermatitis and may be accompanied by photosensitivity reactions [23-26]. The symptoms are thought to be caused by the polysaccharide lentinan, a β-D-glucan [27].

References

1. Pegler, D.N., The classification of the genus Lentinus Fr. (Basidiomycota). Kavaka, 1975. 3(11-20).

2. Berkeley, M., Enumeration of the fungi collected during the expedition of HMS" Challenger", Feb.-Aug. 1873. J. Linn. Soc.(Bot.), 1875. 14: p. 350-354.

3. Kuntze, O., 1891. Revisio generum plantarum 2.

4. Singer, R., Is Shiitake a Cortinellus? Mycologia, 1941. 33(4): p. 449-451.

5. Pegler, D.N., The genus Lentinula (Tricholomataceae tribe Collybieae). Sydowia, 1983. 36: p. 227-239.

6. Hibbett, D.S., K. Hansen, and M.J. Donoghue, Phylogeny and biogeography of Lentinula inferred from an expanded rDNA dataset. Mycological Research, 1998. 102(9): p. 1041-1049.

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7XMR-4RRXX87-3&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F1998&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1669231415&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&]

7. Chang, S.T., Production of cultivated edible mushrooms in China with emphasis on Lentinula edodes. . ISMS Newsletter, 1999. 78(4): p. 3-6.

8. Royse, D.J., L.C. Schisler, and D.A. Diehle, Shiitake mushrooms consumption, production and cultivation. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 1985. 10(4): p. 329-335.

9. Brienzo, M., E.M. Silva, and A.M. Milagres, Degradation of eucalypt waste components by Lentinula edodes strains detected by chemical and near-infrared spectroscopy methods. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2007. 141(1): p. 37-50.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17625265]

10. Campbell, A.C. and M. Racjan, The commercial exploitation of the white rot fungus Lentinula edodes (shiitake). International Biodeterioration & Biodegredation, 1999. 43(3): p. 101-107.

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VG6-3WM4PHG-3/2/8e886a334a03ec465fa66b9d44b712bb]

11. Blanchette, R.A., Delignification by wood-decay fungi. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 1991. 29(1): p. 381-403.

[http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.py.29.090191.002121?journalCode=phyto]

12. Nagai, M., et al., Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2002. 60(3): p. 327-35.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12436315]

13. Saeki, N., et al., Induction of manganese peroxidase and laccase by Lentinula edodes under liquid culture conditions and their isozyme detection by enzymatic staining on native-PAGE. Mycoscience, 2010: p. 1-5.

[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10267-010-0076-1]

14. Zhao, J. and H.S. Kwan, Characterization, molecular cloning, and differential expression analysis of laccase genes from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes. Appl Environ Microbiol, 1999. 65(11): p. 4908-13.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10543802]

15. Lee, J.W., et al., Characterization of xylanase from Lentinus edodes M290 cultured on waste mushroom logs. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2007. 17(11): p. 1811-7.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18092465]

16. Mishra, C. and G.F. Leatham, Recovery and fractionation of the extracellular degradative enzymes from Lentinula edodes cultures cultivated on a solid lignocellulosic substrate. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 1990. 69(1): p. 8-15.

[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T8G-4865FF4-3/2/5f524a40913dd66c39d34bfcdd586e36]

17. Makkar, R.S., et al., Lentinula edodes produces a multicomponent protein complex containing manganese (II)-dependent peroxidase, laccase and beta-glucosidase. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2001. 200(2): p. 175-9.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11425471]

18. D'Annibale, A., et al., Lentinula edodes removes phenols from olive-mill wastewater: impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) germinability. Chemosphere, 2004. 54(7): p. 887-94.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=14637346]

19. Tomati, U., et al., NMR characterization of the polysaccharidic fraction from Lentinula edodes grown on olive mill waste waters. Carbohydr Res, 2004. 339(6): p. 1129-34.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15063201]

20. Chang, S., Past and present trends in the production of Lentinula edodes in Asia. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products”. Universidad Autonoma Del Eastado De Morelos, Mexico, 2002: p. 1-8.

21. Bisen, P.S., et al., Lentinus edodes: a macrofungus with pharmacological activities. Curr Med Chem, 2010. 17(22): p. 2419-30.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20491636]

22. Lee, S.H., et al., In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages. Br Poult Sci, 2010. 51(2): p. 213-21.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20461582]

23. Aalto-Korte, K., et al., Occupational protein contact dermatitis from shiitake mushroom and demonstration of shiitake-specific immunoglobulin E. Contact Dermatitis, 2005. 53(4): p. 211-3.

[http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00613.x/abstract]

24. Mak, R.K. and S.H. Wakelin, Shiitake dermatitis: the first case reported from a European country. Br J Dermatol, 2006. 154(4): p. 800-1.

[http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07174.x/abstract]

25. Herault, M., et al., [Shiitake dermatitis now occurs in France]. Ann Dermatol Venereol, 2010. 137(4): p. 290-3.

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20417363]

26. Nakamura, T., Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis, 1992. 27(2): p. 65-70.

[http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb05211.x/abstract]

27. Kopp, T., et al., Systemic allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of raw shiitake mushroom. Clin Exp Dermatol, 2009. 34(8): p. e910-3

[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20055865]